Enfermedades periodontales y opciones de tratamiento

15 de abril de 2024


Periodontal disease, commonly referred to as gum disease, is a serious infection of the gums that can damage the soft tissue and, without treatment, can destroy the bone that supports your teeth. This condition can lead to teeth loosening or lead to tooth loss. Understanding periodontal diseases and the available treatment options is crucial for maintaining both oral and overall health.

What is Periodontal Disease?

Periodontal disease ranges from simple gum inflammation, known as gingivitis, to more severe forms of the disease such as periodontitis. Gingivitis usually precedes periodontitis but it is important to note not all gingivitis progresses to periodontitis.

Stages of Periodontal Disease:

  • Gingivitis: The earliest stage, characterized by red, swollen gums that may bleed easily. At this stage, the damage can be reversed, since the bone and connective tissue that hold the teeth in place are not yet affected.
  • Periodontitis: If left untreated, gingivitis can lead to periodontitis. In this stage, gums pull away from the tooth, forming pockets that become infected. The body's immune system fights the bacteria as the plaque spreads and grows below the gum line.

Symptoms of Periodontal Disease

  • Persistent bad breath
  • Red or swollen gums
  • Tender or bleeding gums
  • Painful chewing
  • Loose teeth
  • Sensitive teeth
  • Receding gums or longer appearing teeth

Treatment Options for Periodontal Disease

1. Non-Surgical Treatments:

  • Professional Dental Cleaning: During a regular dental checkup, plaque and tartar are removed from above and below the gum line. If gingivitis has been diagnosed, cleaning may be the only treatment necessary.
  • Scaling and Root Planing: This is a deep-cleaning, non-surgical procedure, done under a local anesthetic, whereby plaque and tartar from above and below the gum line are scraped away (scaling) and rough spots on the tooth root are made smooth (planing).

2. Surgical Treatments:

  • Flap Surgery/Pocket Reduction Surgery: Tiny incisions in your gum so that a section of gum tissue can be lifted back, exposing the roots for more effective scaling and root planing.
  • Bone Grafts: Involves using fragments of your own bone, synthetic bone, or donated bone to replace bone destroyed by periodontitis. This can help promote bone growth.
  • Soft Tissue Grafts: Reinforces thin gums or fills in places where gums have receded. Grafted tissue, usually taken from the palate, is stitched in place, adding tissue to the affected area.
  • Guided Tissue Regeneration: Performed when the bone supporting your teeth has been destroyed. This procedure stimulates bone and gum tissue growth when done in conjunction with flap surgery.

Preventive Care and Maintenance

Preventing periodontal disease is about more than just brushing and flossing. Regular dental visits for professional cleanings are crucial. Other preventive measures include:

  • Quitting smoking, which is strongly associated with the onset of gum disease.
  • Eating a balanced diet to strengthen your immune system.
  • Reducing stress, which may make it difficult for your body's immune system to fight off infection.


Periodontal disease is not just detrimental to your oral health but can impact your overall health. It's important to be aware of the symptoms and seek treatment early if any signs develop. With proper management and care, you can significantly mitigate the effects of periodontal diseases and maintain healthy gums and teeth. Always consult with a dental professional to get a tailored treatment plan that best suits your condition.

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